Staff | International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore

Balaji Parthasarathy


Phone: 918041407720


  • Ph.D. (University of California, Berkeley)


Research Interests

  • Globalization, Late Industrialization and Regional Economic Development; Technological Change and Innovation Policy; Infomation and Communication Technologies for Development; The State, Firms, and State-society relationships; Urbanism and Urbanization

Honors and Awards

  • Samuel von Pufendorf Visiting Research Fellow, Pufendorf Institute of Advanced Studies, Lund University, 2017 - 2018
  • Academic Writing Residency, The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center, Italy, 2015
  • Emerging Leader Fellowship, Australia India Institute, University of Melbourne, 2013
  • Linneaus-Palme Faculty Fellow, School of Arts and Communication, Malmö University, Sweden, 2010
  • Chancellor's Dissertation-year Fellowship, University of California Berkeley, 1997-1998
  • Junior Research Fellow, American Institute of Indian Studies, Chicago, 1995-1996
  • Regent's Fellowship, University of California Berkeley, 1993-1994, 1991-1992
  • Academic Achievement Award, California Planning Foundation, American Planning Association, 1991

Selected Publications


Yuko Aoyama with Balaji Parthasarathy. 2016. The Rise of the Hybrid Domain: Collaborative Governance for Social Innovation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. ISBN: 978 1 78536 042 8, DOI:10.4337/9781785360435

Refereed Journal Publications

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2018. When both state and market fail: Inclusive development and social innovation in India. Area Development and Policy. 3(3):330-348.

Balaji Parthasarathy and Yuko Aoyama. 2017. Deploying ICTs for development: An evolutionary perspective. Information Technologies & International Development. 13: 157-170.

Anjali K Mohan and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2016. From hierarchy to heterarchy: The state and the Municipal Reforms Programme, Karnataka, India. Government Information Quarterly. 33:427-434. DOI:10.1016/ j.giq.2016.05.007

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2012. Research and development facilities of multinational enterprises in India. Eurasian Geography and Economics53(5):1-20. DOI:10.2747/1539-7216.53.6.713

Vigneswara P Ilavarasan and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2012. Limited growth opportunities amidst opportunities for growth: an empirical study of inter-firm linkages of small software firms in India. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship. 1:4 (8 August). DOI:10.1186/2192-5372-1-4

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2010. The computer software industry as a vehicle of late industrialisation: Lessons from the Indian case. Journal of Asia-Pacific Economy. 15(3):247-270. DOI:10.1080/13547860.2010.494902

Balaji Parthasarathy and Krithi Ramamritham. 2009. From the guest editors: The best papers from ICTD2007. Information Technologies & International Development. 5(1):iii-v. index.php/itid/ article/view/321/144

Balaji Parthasarathy and Janaki Srinivasan. 2008. How the development of ICTs affects ICTs for development: Social contestation in the shaping of standards for the information age. Science, Technology and Society. 13(2): 279-301. DOI:10.1177/ 09717218080130006

Balaji Parthasarathy and Yuko Aoyama. 2006. From software Services to R&D services: Local entrepreneurship in the software industry in Bangalore, India. Environment and Planning A. 38(7):1269-1285. DOI:10.1068/a38102

Seán Ó Riain, Balaji Parthasarathy and Matthew Zook. 2004. Flows and filters: The politics of ICT regions in a global economy. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 28(3):617-620. DOI:10.1111/ j.0309-1317.2004.00539.x

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2004. India's Silicon Valley or Silicon Valley's India?: Socially embedding the computer software industry in Bangalore. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 28(3):664-685. DOI:10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00542.x

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2004. Globalizing information technology: The domestic policy context for India's software production and exports. Iterations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Software History. 3 (3 May 2004):1-38. parthasarathy.pdf

Michael Southworth and Balaji Parthasarathy. 1997. The suburban public realm II: Eurourbanism, new urbanism and the implications for urban design in the American metropolis. Journal of Urban Design. (1):9-34. DOI:10.1080/13574809708724394

Michael Southworth and Balaji Parthasarathy. 1996. The suburban public realm I: Its emergence, growth and transformation in the American metropolis. Journal of Urban Design. 1(3):245-263. DOI:10.1080/ 13574809608724385

Balaji Parthasarathy. 1994. Marxist theories of development, the new international division of labor, and the Third World. Berkeley Planning Journal. 9:109-124.

Refereed Presentations

 Balaji Parthasarathy and Yuko Aoyama. 2019. Governing frugal innovation for sustainable innovation for sustainable development: The hybrid domain. Capturing Frugal Innovation: Towards a Handbook on the Crossroads of Technology, Entrepreneurship and Global Sustainable Development, Leiden, Netherlands, 11-15 February.

Balaji Parthasarathy and Yuko Aoyama. 2107. Institutionalizing frugal innovation: “Domain flexibility” and “scalar flexibility” for sustainable development. International Conference on Frugal Innovation for Sustainable Global Development, Leiden, Netherlands, 7-8 November.

Balaji Parthasarathy and Yuko Aoyama. 2017. Beyond the impasse of the state-market dichotomy: Social entrepreneurship and new institutional actors for the underserved. 15th Globelics International Conference, Athens, Greece, 11-13 October.

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2017. Collaborative social innovation in the hybrid domain: Organization and rationality. The 14th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (IFIP Working Group 9.4 Conference 2017), Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 22-24 May.

Balaji Parthasarathy and Yuko Aoyama. 2016. Beyond ICTs and  developmental domains: The historical specificity of ICTD. Proceedings of the Eigth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, Ann Arbor, USA, 3-6 June. DOI:10.1145/ 2909609.2909662

Mandar Kulkarni and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2015. Negotiating the antinomies of regional branching with intermediaries: Providing a “spatial fix” to innovation in new media industries. 13th Globelics International Conference, Havana, Cuba, 23-25 September.

Balaji Parthasarathy, Yuko Aoyama and Niveditha Menon. 2015. Innovating for the bottom of the pyramid: Case studies in healthcare from India. 3rd International Conference on Technologies for Development, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4-6 June.

Ricardo Ramirez, Balaji Parthasarathy and Andrew Gordon. 2013. From infomediaries to infomediation at public access venues: lessons from a 3-country study. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and DevelopmentCape Town, South Africa, 7-10 December. DOI: 10.1145/ 2516604.2516621

Anjali K Mohan, Edward Cutrell and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2013. Instituting credibility, accountability and transparency in local service delivery? Helpline and Aasthi in Karnataka, India. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and DevelopmentCape Town, South Africa, 7-10 December. DOI:10.1145/2516604.2516622

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2011. The role of regions in supporting the emergence and growth of global innovation networks: The case of Bangalore, India. 9th Globelics International Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 15-17 November.

Balaji Parthasarathy and V Ranganathan. 2010. The national system of innovation in India and its globalization. 8th Globelics International Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1-3 November.

Janani Vasudev and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2007. The post-consumptive residues of information and communication technologies: Transnational e-waste flows and developmental dilemmas. 2nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD2007). Bangalore, 15-16 December DOI:10.1109/ ICTD.2007.4937389

Balaji Parthasarathy and Janaki Srinivasan. 2006. Innovation and its social impacts: The role of ethnography in the evaluation and assessment of ICTD projects. 4th Globelics International ConferenceTrivandrum, 4-7 October.

Balaji Parthasarathy. 1998. Industrializing countries and the changing international division of labor in the computer software industry: Lessons from the Indian case, 1977-1997. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s Globalization Workshop for Junior Scholars, Duke University, USA, 24-25 April.

Balaji Parthasarathy and Subhrajit Guhathakurta. 1995. An Indian technopole and the transformation of urban space: Global imperatives and local realities in the Bangalore metropolitan region. Conference on Theaters of Decolonization, Chandigarh, 6-10 January.

Book Chapters

Balaji Parthasarathy and Brinda Sastry. 2019. Intelligence for place-making and social inclusion: Critiques and alternatives to India's Smart Cities Mission. In Tridib Banerjee and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris (eds.). The New Urban Design Companion. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp.571-581 (Chapter 43).

Balaji Parthasarathy, Yuko Aoyama and Niveditha Menon. 2015. Innovating for the bottom of the pyramid: Case studies in healthcare from India. In Silvia Hostettler, Eileen Hazboun, Jean-Claude Bolay (eds.).  Technologies for Development: What is Essential? Chem, CH: Springer. pp.55-68 (Chapter 6). (Note: this volume brought together 20 leading papers of the 125 chosen for presentation at the 3rd International Conference on Technologies for Development)

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2013. A half century of envisioning the future in Bangalore: From autarky to innovation in the global information economy. In Phil Cooke, Glen Searle and Kevin O’Connor (eds.). The Economic Geography of the IT Industry in the Asia Pacific Region. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp.221-242 (Chapter 13).

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2013. The changing character of Indian offshore ICT services provision, 1985-2010. In Ashok Bardhan, Dwight Jaffee and Cynthia Kroll (eds.). Oxford Handbook of Offshoring and Global Employment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp.380-404 (Chaater 16). DOI:10.1093/ oxfordhb/9780199765904.013.0016

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2013. The ICT industry in Bangalore: Its changing structure and characteristics. In Hitoshi Hirakawa, Kaushalesh Lal, Naoko Shinkai and Norio Tokumaru (eds.). Servitization, IT-ization and Innovation Models: Two-state Industrial Cluster Theory. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp.87-105  (Chapter 5) (Note: this is a shorter version of the paper published in 2010 in the Journal of the Asia-Pacific Economy, 15(3):247-70)

Balaji Parthasarathy and Bharath M Palavalli. 2011. The role of standards in technology driven commodity chains: The information and communications technology service industry in Dalian, China, and Bangalore, India. In Moriki Ohara, M Vijayabaskar and Hong Lin (eds.). Industrial Dynamics in China and India: Firms, Clusters and Different Growth Paths. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp.237-258 (Chapter 11). DOI:10.1057/ 9780230308305_12

Balaji Parthasarathy and Ricardo Gomes Lage. 2010. Organizational impacts of information technology. In Hossein Bidgoli (ed.). The Handbook of Technology Management Volume 1: Core Concepts, Financial Tools and Techniques, Operations and Innovation Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. pp.289-298.

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2009 Information Technology. In Rob Kitchin and Nigel Thrift (eds.). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. pp.469-474. DOI:10.1016/B978-008044910-4.00180-2

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2007. Contrasting regimes of regional development: The telecommunications equipment industry and the computer software industry in India. In Allen J. Scott and Gioacchino Garofoli (eds.). Development on the Ground: Clusters, Networks, and Regions in Emerging Economies. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp.189-222 (Chapter 9).

Subhrajit Guhathakurta and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2007. The role of world markets and international networks in the evolution of India`s high-tech clusters. In Annapurna Shaw (ed.). Indian Cities in Transition. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman.

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2006. The political economy of the computer software industry in India. In Govindan Parayil (ed.). Political Economy and Informational Capitalism in India: Digital Divide, Development and Equity. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp.153-173 (Chapter 8). DOI:10.1057/ 9780230595613_8

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2005. The political economy of the computer software industry in Bangalore, India. In Ashwani Saith and M. Vijayabaskar (eds.). ICTs and Indian Economic Development: Economy, Work, Regulation. New Delhi, India: Sage Publications. pp.199-230 (Chapter 6).

Technical Reports and Working Papers

Balaji Parthasarathy and Oindrila Matilal. 2019. The Platform Economy and Digital Work: A Developmental State Perspective. Developmental Impacts of Digital Economies Working Paper no. 9, Centre for Development Informatics, Global Development Institute, University of Manchester. developmental-state-diode-paper-final.pdf

Jennifer Brant and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2015. The Dynamics of Global Technology and Knowledge Flows. International Chamber of Commerce Innovation and Intellectual Property Research Paper No.4. abstract=2587205

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2014. Reversing the Flow of Ideas? Frugal Innovation for India and the World Beyond. Chanakya Papers, Australia India Institute, University of Melbourne.

Ricardo Ramirez, Balaji Parthasarathy and Andrew Gordon. 2013. Infomediaries: Brokers of Public AccessGlobal Impact Study Research Report Series, Technology and Social Change Group, University of Washington, Seattle. bitstream/item/25410/GIS_Infom ediaries_final_report.pdf?sequence=1

Balaji Parthasarathy and Girish Prabhu. 2012. Wireless or Nothing: Designing with 4G Technology in India’s Social and Cultural Milieu. Report submitted to Intel India Technology Private Limited.

Balaji Parthasarathy (with Kenneth Keniston, G.R.Kiran, Richa Kumar, Aswin Punathambekar, G.Dileep Kumar, Janaki Srinivasan and Solomon Benjamin). 2005. Information and Communications Technologies for Development: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts and Costs from India. Report submitted to the Department of Information Technology, Government of India (vide administrative approval no.3(74)/2003-EGD, dated 10.02.2004).

Michael Southworth and Balaji Parthasarathy. 1997. Reassessing the Public Realm: Implications for Urban Design in the Evolving Edge of the American Metropolis. Working paper 685, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley. 

Book Reviews

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2011. Review of "Shirin Madon. 2009. E-governance for Development – A Focus on Rural India. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan." Information Technologies and International Development. 7(4):81-84.

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2007. Review of "Asish Arora and Alfonso Gambardella (eds). 2005. From Underdogs to Tigers: The Rise and Growth of the Software Industry in Brazil, China, India, Ireland, and Israel. New York, NY: Oxford University Press." Economic Geography. 83(3):331-332.

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2006. Review of "James Heitzman. 2004. Network City: Planning the Information Society in Bangalore. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press." Indian Economic and Social History Review. 43(4):511-513.

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2001. Review of "Harry A. Mengers. 1997. Urban Development in the State of Karnataka, India: Policies, Actors and Outcomes. Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change, Volume 27. Saarbrucken: Verlag fur Entwicklungspolitik." Development and Change. 32(1):188-189. 

Balaji Parthasarathy. 1998. Review of "Richard Heeks. 1996. India's Software Industry: State Policy, Liberalisation and Industrial Development. New Delhi: India Sage Publications." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences. 558:234-235.

Other writings (non-academic fora)

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2015. BBMP trifurcation: What will it mean for citizens? Times of India, Bangalore, 22 April city/ bengaluru/ BBMP-trifurcation-What-will-it-mean-for-citizens/ articleshow/47008175.cms

Anjali K Mohan and Balaji Parthasarathy. 2014. The Municipal Reforms Program in Karnataka and `design-reality gaps`. digital-divides/item/53-design-reality-gaps-in-municipal-reforms.html

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2013. Urbanism, technology, and “third worldness”. 24 March

Balaji Parthasarathy and Anjali K Mohan. 2013. Approaches to regional policies in India. Regions. 289:16-18. DOI:10.1080/13673882.2013.10662632

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2010. Envisioning the Future in Bangalore. Seminar. 612:2-6 cd_frame8899.html

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2008. Multiversities in Bengaluru? Management Next. 4(6):9  http://managementnext.compdf/2008/MN_Jan_2008.pdf

Balaji Parthasarathy. 2006 (trans. into German by Andreas Bredenfeld). Wie konnte es geschehen? Bangalore hat sich zum indischen Silicon Valley entwickelt. (How could it happen? Bangalore has developed into the Indian Silicon Valley). Kulturaustausch. 56(4):34-35.


Courses Taught

ITS 651 Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry

ITS 652 Economic and Social Impacts of Information Technology

ITS 385 Cybergeography, Globalization and Location

ITS 295 The City: A Crucible of Innovation

Thesis Supervision (as Chairperson, at IIIT Bangalore)

Pradyumna Taduri. 2019. Delivering Consent: Work Games in On-Demand Food Delivery Platforms. Thesis submitted for the Master of Science (Digital Society) degree (co-supervisor: Janaki Srinivasan).

Supriya Dey. 2017. The Evolution of the IT Engineer in India: Looking Back to See Ahead. Thesis submitted for the Master of Science by Research degree (co-supervisor: Amit Prakash).

Anjali Karol Mohan. 2015. From Hierarchy to Heterarchy in the Information Age: The State and the Municipal Reforms Programme in Karnataka, India. Dissertation submitted for the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree.

Ricardo Gomes Lage. 2009. The Institutional Context of the Impacts of ICTs in Higher Education: A Study of Engineering Students in India. Thesis submitted for the Master of Science by Research degree.

Janani Vasudev. 2007. The Post-Consumptive Residues of Information Technology: E-waste Management and Disposal in Bangalore and Chennai, India. Thesis submitted for the Master of Technology (M.Tech.) degree.

Janaki Srinivasan. 2004. The Effects of E-Governance Implementation on Women: A Study of the Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI) Project, Madurai. Thesis submitted for the Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology.

Thesis Supervision (as Committee member, at other institutions)

Rory Horner. 2013. The State, Patents and the Development of India’s Pharmaceutical Industry. Dissertation submitted for the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree, Department of Geography, Clark University, USA

Amit Prakash. 2008. Importance of Development Context in Use of ICT4D Projects: A Study of Land Record Computerization in India. Dissertation submitted for the Fellowship in Management (FPM) Programme, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.

N.Dayasindhu. 2002. Reasons for the Inimitability of Network Resources: A Case Study in the Research and Development Services Domain of the Indian Information Technology Industry. Dissertation submitted for the Fellowship in Management (FPM) rogramme, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.

Research & Consulting

Research Grants


Oxford Internet Institute, UK

Project: Fairwork: Developing Fairwork Standards in the Gig Economy

Duration: 1 July 2018 - 31 March 2019

Funding: UK£17,150


Centre for Development Informatics, Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, UK

Project: Institutional Roles and Challenges for International Development in the Digital Economy

Duration: 1 January 2018 – 31 March 2019

Funding: UK£3000


Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden

Project: Global Innovation Networks, Regional Variety and its Impact on the Innovativeness of Firms and Regions: The IT and New Media Industry in Sweden in a Global Comparative Perspective

Duration: 1 January 2014 – 31 December 2018

Funding: 402,000 Swedish Krona (of a SEK 8.4 million study coordinated by the

Center for Innovation Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden)


Agence Nationale Recherche, France

Project: Ingénieurs et Société en Inde Coloniale et Postcoloniale

Duration: 1 January 2014 – 31 December 2016

Funding: €12,000 (of a €336,687 study coordinated by the Centre d’Études de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud, Paris)


National Science Foundation, USA

Project: The Global Shift in R&D Alliances: Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) and the Quest for the ‘Base of the Pyramid’ (BOP) markets (co-Principal Investigator: Yuko Aoyama, Clark University, USA)

Duration: 1 September 2011 – 31 August 2014

Funding: US$73,928 (of US$269,998)


Riksbanken Jublieumsfond, Sweden

Project: The Challenge of Globalization: Technology Driven Foreign Direct Investment and its Implications for the Negotiation of International Investment Agreements

Duration:1 September 2011 – 31 August 2014

Funding: €79,870 (of a €950,000 study coordinated by Center for Innovation Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden)


Intel Technology India Private Limited

Project: Next Generation Scalable Wireless Infrastructure and Services in the Context of India’s Social and Cultural Characteristics

Duration: 1 March 2011 – 28 February 2012

Funding: 1,242,000


Institute of Developing Economies, Japan

Project: ICTs as Vehicle for Late-industrialization: Industrial Development Process in China and India the in 21st Century

Duration: 1 April 2009 – 31 March 2010

Funding: US$7500


European Union Seventh Framework Programme

Project: Impact of Networks, Globalisation, and their Interaction with EU Strategies

Duration: 1 January 2009 – 31 December 2011

Funding: €76,000 (of a €2.7 million study coordinated by the University of Bologna)


Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

International Development Research Centre, Canada

Project: Infomediaries: Brokers of Public Access (co-Principal Investigators: Andrew Gordon, University of Washington, Seattle; Ricardo Ramirez, University of Guelph) Duration: 1 January 2008 – 30 June 2013

Funding: US$223,000 (of the US$5 million Global Impact Study coordinated by the Technology and Social Change Group, University of Washington, Seattle)


Microsoft Research University Relations

Project: E-nabling the Underserved: An Ethnographic Study of ICT for Development Projects in Rural India

Duration: 15 January 2005 – 15 January 2006

Funding: US$40,000


Leverhulme Trust, UK

Project: Small ICT Firms in Developing Countries: An Analytical Case Study of India (co-investigator: Vigneswara P Ilavarasan)

Duration: 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2006

Funding: UK£23,000


Department of Information Technology, Government of India

Project: Information and Communications Technologies for Development: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts and Costs from India

Duration: March 2004 – December 2004

Funding: 23,47,000


International Development Research Centre, Canada

Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme, UNDP

The Asian Media Information and Communication Centre, Singapore  Project: Diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies in India: Labour Market Implications for Developing Countries (co-investigator: M Vijayabaskar)

Duration: 1 April 2002 – 31 March 2003

Funding: US$8,400